Assessing Environmental Lead (Pb) Exposure in Resource-Constrained Settings

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The purpose of this document is to familiarize readers with key concepts of lead (Pb) risk assessment as the basis for developing and carrying out investigations in resource-constrained settings where children have been found to have elevated blood lead levels (BLLs). It is intended to be used as part of a larger toolkit under development by a working group led by UNICEF, the purpose of which is to end childhood lead poisoning. The document is organized sequentially, proceeding from background research to design and execution and finally to interpretation and communication of results. It also includes supporting information in the form of technical annexes on sampling methods and the estimation of BLLs, and case studies in the main text to illuminate key concepts.